Antibiotics:The good, the bad and the ugly

Antibiotics have been extremely effective and often lifesaving in the treatment of some infectious diseases, but they don’t cure all illnesses and can sometimes even cause significant medical problems. Therefore, it is important that antibiotics are taken properly.

Health care providers have seen unfortunate complications of inappropriate antibiotic use and, as a result, avoid using these potent medications if not needed. Antibiotics are prescribed when appropriate but are not used when dealing with a viral infection where the medication will not help and has the potential for significant harm. While it is tempting for individuals to look for a quick and easy cure when ill, more often than not, antibiotics are not the answer.

Antibiotics typically are effective against bacteria but not against viruses. Therefore, antibiotics do not help in viral illnesses such as mononeucleosis, flu and colds. Although researchers are attempting to develop new categories of drugs to combat viral diseases, few drugs are currently available.

Clinicians use clinical history, examination and laboratory tests to distinguish between viral and bacterial infections. Clinicians may use cultures from the throat, sputum, urine, blood or wound to identify the bacteria along with its antibiotic sensitivity. This information helps the clinician choose an antibiotic that will be effective.

You can develop an allergy at any time, even if you have safely used the antibiotic in the past. Prior use is not a guarantee that a person will not develop an allergic response. Most allergic reactions to antibiotics are relatively minor skin reactions. However, occasionally life-threatening allergic reactions occur, with swelling of the throat and difficulty breathing. If you think you are having an allergic reaction, stop taking the medication and contact your clinician

Antibiotics cannot distinguish between normal body bacteria and disease-causing bacteria. The result is often a disturbance in the natural balance of organisms, which may lead to severe diarrhea or, more commonly, yeast vaginitis in women. Other complications may arise from the side effects of certain antibiotics, such as severe gastrointestinal upset, sun sensitivity and interactions with other medications.

Many people mistakenly believe that people can “get used to” an antibiotic. This is not the case, but bacteria can develop resistance to an antibiotic. The more antibiotics are used, the more resistance is evident. Some bacteria are resistant to all known antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance has become a major concern in the developed, as well as in certain developing countries where antibiotics are available without prescription. In countries where antibiotic use is limited, bacteria have become more sensitive to antibiotics.

It is important to take your antibiotic as instructed by your clinician or pharmacist. Taking antibiotic until all the medication is gone ensures to reduce the impact of drug resistance. Harmful Long term adverse effect can also be curtailed when antibiotics are only taken for the condition for which it is prescribed. Certain antibiotics may interact with food or other medications or may make you more sensitive to sunlight or cause dizziness. Consult your clinician or pharmacist if you are unsure about such interactions. It is important to alert your clinician or pharmacist to any new medical conditions that arise during your antibiotic therapy.

Credit: World Health Organization (WHO)
University of Michigan Health Service

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